Note, Know, Choose: A psychospiritual treatment model based on early Buddhist teachings.

Principle investigator (PI): Dr. Kin Cheung (George) Lee
Co-PI: Dr. Jessica Tang, Dr. Adrian J. Davis, Dr. Ronald King To Chan, Mr. Jonathan Wai Ying Chau, Mr. Michael Kong Tao, and Venerable Anzhen (Zhang, Hui Mei)
End date: 2021 Sep
Fund source: Sponsored by Mrs. Lee Fung Kung Wah (Mrs. Simon K.Y. Lee)
Research Output:

Academic paper
Lee, K. C. (G.) (2021). Introduction to a Buddhist Counselling Technique Based on Early Buddhist Teachings: Mind Moment Analysis. Contemporary Buddhism. DOI: 10.1080/14639947.2021.1981062

Lee, K. C. (G.), & Tang, J. L. K. (2021). Note, know, choose: A psychospiritual treatment model based on early Buddhist teachings. Spirituality in Clinical Practice.Advance online publication.


Lee, K. C. & Ong, C. K. (2019). The Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta: An Application of Buddhist Mindfulness for Counsellors. Journal of Contemporary Buddhism, 19(2), 327-341.

Published books
Lee, K. C. (2023). The Guide to Buddhist Counseling. Abingdon: Routledge. (ISBN: 0367458055)

Book Chapters
Lee, K. C. (in-press). Buddhist Crisis Care: A Buddhist Counseling Approach for Advanced Cancer. In N. J. Michon (ed.), Refuge in the Storm: Buddhist Voices in Crisis Care (pp. 129-138). Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Lee, K. C. & Ng, C. F. (2020). An Indigenous Perspective on Buddhism. Invited chapter in Sisemore, T. A. & Knabb, J. J. (ed.) The Psychology of World Religions and Spiritualities: An Indigenous Perspective (pp. 137-164). West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: Templeton Press.

In its 2000 years of history, Buddhism has deep cultural roots for millions of individuals in the world, which makes it a highly culturally congruent form of indigenous psychology. The original form of Buddhism, known as Early Buddhism, is a comprehensive study of mind with epistemological assumptions on human nature, psychopathology, curative factors, and interventions. However, no treatment model has utilized Buddhism as a stand-alone theoretical orientation. This project aims to develop the Note, Know, Choose model as a three-phase psychospiritual treatment approach based on Buddhist teaching to train the skillfulness of the mind. In the Note phase, clients learn to develop clarity and stability of mind through various Buddhist mindfulness techniques such as mindful breathing, sustaining attention on different body parts, chanting, or reciting a mantra. Clients develop regular meditative practices throughout the treatment process. The Know phase helps clients to gain insight into how suffering, desire, and craving arise from the mind’s contact with external objects. Therefore, previously neglected choice points are discovered and intervened. The Choose phase focuses on applying the insights that result into daily encounters and fostering the skills needed to make alternative decisions. Techniques such as cultivating a compassionate view of self and others visualizing the non-self are adopted. The goal of the project is to introduce the Note, Know, Choose model as a non-faith based treatment approach for mental health professionals interested in Buddhist wisdom as well as a viable treatment of choice for thousands of individuals affiliated with Buddhist cultures.

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